Beam is the most important and widely used structural member in a structure. A component which is under transverse loading is designated as beam. This transverse loading initiates bending of the beam which results into bending and shearing stresses.
A typical beam has following two components:
Flange – Flanges carry bending loads
Web – Web carries shear load.
Following are the steps in beam analysis:
- Idealize the beam support – To calculate the moment
- Idealize the loads – To determine the reactions
- Draw Free Body Diagram (FBD) – To get a clear picture of maximum loading
- Calculate the reactions – To determine the Shear Force
- Find Shear Force (V), Axial Force (P) & Moment (M) at the location of interest – In case of variable cross-section or in case of multiple loads
- Draw Shear Force Diagram, Bending Moment Diagram & Axial Force Diagram (SFD, BMD & AFD) – In case of variable cross-section or in case of multiple loads
- Calculate cross sectional properties (Inertia & Cross-sectional area)
- Calculate Bending stress and shear stress
- Calculate Equivalent stress – Use theories of failure as per the scenario
- Compare with the Yield/Ultimate point of material to determine failure