What are the loads on the Wing of an aircraft?

Wing is the most vital part of an aircraft as it provides lift required for flying. There are several configuration of wings available depending upon various performance parameters. Designing a wing and its structure is a challenging task and it requires a thorough knowledge of the loads that a wing can encounter during its service life. Wing acts as a cantilever beam which is subjected to a combination of loadings which are dynamic in nature.

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Following are the general loads a wing has to sustain in its life span:

  • Aerodynamic pressure or Airload spanwise and chordwise distributed load:
  • Landing and Taxing load
  • Fuel & Structural Load
  • Fuel Sloshing load
  • Fuel vapour and refuelling pressure load
  • Inertia Load
  • Wing crushing load during up bending
  • Loads from control surface
  • Loads due to fuselage pitching moment
  • Fuselage pressure Load in wing centre section
  • Loads due to symmetrical or asymmetrical flight conditions
  • Gust loads
  • Pitching moment load
  • Loads due to Aeroelasticity, Buffeting and Flutter
  • Load due to wing configuration
  • Drag distribution load
  • Loads due to Vortices
  • Bird Strike Load
  • Lightning Strike Load
  • Hail Strike Load
  • Concentrated shear loads from engine mounts, landing gear etc.
  • Thermal anti-icing

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